Archive

Posts Tagged ‘Krebs on Security’

When Your Used Car is a Little Too ‘Mobile’

February 5, 2020 Leave a comment

Many modern vehicles let owners use the Internet or a mobile device to control the car’s locks, track location and performance data, and start the engine. But who exactly owns that control is not always clear when these smart cars are sold or leased anew. Here’s the story of one former electric vehicle owner who discovered he could still gain remote, online access to his old automobile years after his lease ended.

Mathew Marulla began leasing a Ford Focus electric vehicle in 2013, but turned the car back in to Ford at the end of his lease in 2016. So Marulla was surprised when he recently received an email from Ford.com stating that the clock in his car was set incorrectly.

Out of curiosity, Marulla decided to check if his old MyFordMobile.com credentials from 2016 still worked. They did, and Marulla was presented with an online dashboard showing the current location of his old ride and its mileage statistics.

The dashboard also allowed him to remotely start the vehicle, as well as lock and unlock its doors.

Mathew Marulla turned in his leased Ford EV to Ford 4 years ago, so he is no longer the legal owner of the car. But he can still remotely track its location and usage, lock and unlock it, and start the engine.

“It was a three-year lease from Ford and I turned it in to Ford four years ago, so Ford definitely knows I am no longer the owner,” Marulla said, noting that the dashboard also included historic records showing where the Focus had been driven in days prior.

“I can track its movements, see where it plugs in,” he said. “Now I know where the current owner likely lives, and if I watch it tomorrow I can probably figure out where he works. I have not been the owner of this vehicle for four years, Ford knows this, yet they took no action whatsoever to remove me as the owner in this application.”

Asked to comment on Marulla’s experience, a spokesperson for Ford said all Ford dealerships are supposed to perform a “master reset” as part of their used car checklist prior to the resale of a vehicle. A master reset (carried out via the vehicle’s SYNC infotainment screen by a customer or dealer) disassociates the vehicle from all current accounts.

“A master reset cleans phone data and removes previous Ford Pass and My Ford Mobile connections,” the company said in a statement released to KrebsOnSecurity. “Once complete, a previous owner will no longer be able to connect to the vehicle when they log in to My Ford Mobile or Ford Pass.”

As Marulla’s experience shows, if you’re in the market for a used car you should probably check whether it’s possible to reset the previous owner’s control and/or information before purchasing it, or at least ask the dealership to help you ensure this gets done once the purchase is made.

And if you’re thinking of selling your car, it’s a good idea to clear your personal data from the vehicle first. As the U.S. Federal Trade Commission advises, some cars have a factory reset option that will return the settings and data to their original state.

“But even after a factory reset, you may still have work to do,” reads an FTC consumer privacy notice from 2018. “For example, your old car may still be connected to subscription services like satellite radio, mobile Wi-Fi hotspots, and data services. You need to cancel these services or have them transferred to your new vehicle.”

By the way, this issue of de-provisioning is something of a sticky wicket, and it potentially extends well beyond vehicles to a number of other “smart” devices that end up being resold or refurbished. This is doubly so for Internet-connected/capable devices whose design may give the previous owner a modicum of access to or control over the device in question regardless of what steps the new owner takes to limit such access (particularly some types of security cameras).

from Krebs on Security https://ift.tt/2OtVKZE
via IFTTT

Booter Boss Busted By Bacon Pizza Buy

February 4, 2020 Leave a comment

A Pennsylvania man who operated one of the Internet’s longest-running online attack-for-hire or “booter” services was sentenced to five years probation today. While the young man’s punishment was heavily tempered by his current poor health, the defendant’s dietary choices may have contributed to both his capture and the lenient sentencing: Investigators say the onetime booter boss’s identity became clear after he ordered a bacon and chicken pizza delivered to his home using the same email address he originally used to register his criminal attack service.

David Bukoski, 24, of Hanover Township, Pa., pleaded guilty to running Quantum Stresser, an attack-for-hire business — also known as a “booter” or “stresser” service — that helped paying customers launch tens of thousands of digital sieges capable of knocking Web sites and entire network providers offline.

The landing page for the Quantum Stresser attack-for-hire service.

Investigators say Bukoski’s booter service was among the longest running services targeted by the FBI, operating since at least 2012. The government says Quantum Stresser had more than 80,000 customer subscriptions, and that during 2018 the service was used to conduct approximately 50,000 actual or attempted attacks targeting people and networks worldwide.

The Quantum Stresser Web site — quantumstress[.]net — was among 15 booter services that were seized by U.S. and international authorities in December 2018 as part of a coordinated takedown targeting attack-for-hire services.

Federal prosecutors in Alaska said search warrants served on the email accounts Bukoski used in conjunction with Quantum Stresser revealed that he was banned from several companies he used to advertise and accept payments for the booter service.

The government’s sentencing memorandum says Bukoski’s replies demanding to know the reasons for the suspensions were instrumental in discovering his real name.  FBI agents were able to zero in on Bukoski’s real-life location after a review of his email account showed a receipt from May 2018 in which he’d gone online and ordered a handmade pan pizza to be delivered to his home address.

When an online pizza delivery order brings FBI agents to raid your home.

While getting busted on account of ordering a pizza online might sound like a bone-headed or rookie mistake for a cybercriminal, it is hardly unprecedented. In 2012 KrebsOnSecurity wrote about the plight of Yuriy “Jtk” Konovalenko, a then 30-year-old Ukrainian man who was rounded up as part of an international crackdown on an organized crime gang that used the ZeuS malware to steal tens of millions of dollars from companies and consumers. In that case, Konovalenko ultimately unmasked himself because he used his Internet connection to order the delivery of a “Veggia Roma” pizza to his apartment in the United Kingdom.

Interestingly, the feds say their examination of Bukoski’s Internet browsing records showed he knew full well that running a booter service was punishable under federal law (despite disclaimers published on Quantum Stresser stating that the site’s owners weren’t responsible for how clients used the service).

“The defendant’s web browsing history was significant to investigators for a number of reasons, including the fact that it shows that the defendant browsed an article written by a prominent security researcher referencing both the defendant’s enterprise along with a competing service, including a link provided by the researcher in the article to an advisory posted by the FBI warning that the operation of booter services was potentially punishable under federal law,” reads the sentencing memo from Assistant U.S. Attorney Adam Alexander.

That’s interesting because the article in question was actually a 2017 KrebsOnSecurity story about a mobile app tied to a competing booter service that happened to share some of the same content as Quantum Stresser.

That 2017 story referenced an FBI advisory that had just been issued warning the use of booter services is punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, and may result in arrest and criminal prosecution.

Bukoski was sentenced to five years of probation and six months of “community confinement.” The government suggested a lenient sentence considering the defendant’s ongoing health complications, which include liver failure.

from Krebs on Security https://ift.tt/2v0hk13
via IFTTT

Iowa Prosecutors Drop Charges Against Men Hired to Test Their Security

January 31, 2020 Leave a comment

On Sept. 11, 2019, two security experts at a company that had been hired by the state of Iowa to test the physical and network security of its judicial system were arrested while probing the security of an Iowa county courthouse, jailed in orange jumpsuits, charged with burglary, and held on $100,000 bail. On Thursday Jan. 30, prosecutors in Iowa announced they had dropped the criminal charges. The news came while KrebsOnSecurity was conducting a video interview with the two accused (featured below).

The courthouse in Dallas County, Iowa. Image: Wikipedia.

Gary DeMercurio, 43 of Seattle, and Justin Wynn, 29 of Naples, Fla., are both professional penetration testers employed by Coalfire Labs, a security firm based in Westminster, Colo. Iowa’s State Court Administration had hired the company to test the security of its judicial buildings.

Under the terms of their contract (PDF), DeMercurio and Wynn were permitted to impersonate staff and contractors, provide false pretenses to gain physical access to facilities, “tailgate” employees into buildings, and access restricted areas of those facilities. The contract said the men could not attempt to subvert alarm systems, force-open doors, or access areas that require protective equipment.

When the duo’s early-morning Sept. 11 test of the security at the courthouse in Dallas County, Iowa set off an audible security alarm, they followed procedure and waited on-site for the police. DeMercurio and Wynn said when the county’s sheriff deputies arrived on the scene just a few minutes later, they told the officers who they were and why they were there, and that they’d obtained entry to the premises via an unlocked door.

“They said they found a courthouse door unlocked, so they closed it from the outside and let it lock,” Dan Goodin of Ars Technica wrote of the ordeal in November. “Then they slipped a plastic cutting board through a crack in the door and manipulated its locking mechanism. (Pentesters frequently use makeshift or self-created tools in their craft to flip latches, trigger motion-detected mechanisms, and test other security systems.) The deputies seemed impressed.”

To assuage concerns they might be burglars, DeMercurio and Wynn produced an authorization letter detailing the job they’d been hired to do and listing the names and mobile phone numbers of Iowa state employees who could verify their story.

After contacting some of the court officials listed in the letter, the deputies seemed satisfied that the men weren’t thieves. That is, until Dallas County Sheriff Chad Leonard showed up.

“The pentesters had already said they used a tool to open the front door,” Goodin recounted. “Leonard took that to mean the men had violated the restriction against forcing doors open. Leonard also said the men attempted to turn off the alarm—something Coalfire officials vehemently deny. In Leonard’s mind that was a second violation. Another reason for doubt: one of the people listed as a contact on the get-out-of-jail-free letter didn’t answer the deputies’ calls, while another said he didn’t believe the men had permission to conduct physical intrusions.”

DeMercurio and Wynn were arrested, jailed, and held for nearly 24 hours before being released on a $100,000 bail. Initially they were charged with felony third-degree burglary and possessing burglary tools, although those charges were later downgraded to misdemeanor trespass.

What initially seemed to Coalfire as a momentary lapse of judgment by Iowa authorities quickly morphed into the surreal when state lawmakers held hearings questioning why and how someone in the state’s employ could have so recklessly endangered the safety and security of its citizens.

Image: Dallas County Jail.

Judicial Branch officials in Dallas County said in response to this grilling that they didn’t expect Coalfire’s physical penetration testing to be conducted outside of business hours. State Sen. Amy Sinclair was quoted as telling her colleagues that “the hiring of an outside company to break into the courthouses in September created ‘significant danger, not only to the contractors, but to local law enforcement, and members of the public.’”

“Essentially a branch of government has contracted with a company to commit crimes, and that’s very troubling,” lamented Iowa state Sen. Zach Whiting. “I want to find out who needs to be held accountable for this and how we can do that.”

Those strong words clashed with a joint statement released Thursday by Coalfire and Dallas County Attorney Charles Sinnard:

“Ultimately, the long-term interests of justice and protection of the public are not best served by continued prosecution of the trespass charges,” the statement reads. “Those interests are best served by all the parties working together to ensure that there is clear communication on the actions to be taken to secure the sensitive information maintained by the judicial branch, without endangering the life or property of the citizens of Iowa, law enforcement or the persons carrying out the testing.

Matthew Linholm, an attorney representing DeMercurio and Wynn in the case, said the justice system ceases to serve its crucial function and loses credibility when criminal accusations are used to advance personal or political agendas.

“Such a practice endangers the effective administration of justice and our confidence in the criminal justice system,” Linholm told The Des Moines Register, which broke the news of the dropped charges.

While the case against Coalfire’s employees has rallied many in the cybersecurity community around the accused, not everyone sees this dispute in black-and-white. Chris Nickerson, a digital intrusion specialist and founder of LARES Consulting, said in a Twitter post Thursday that “when a company puts us in harm’s way due to their poor planning, failed sales education, inadequate project management and deplorable contract management…We shouldn’t celebrate them. We should hold them accountable.”

Asked to elaborate, Nickerson referred to a recent podcast which touched on the arrests.

“The things that concern me about this situation are more of the pieces of safety that exist across how the industry instruments doing these types of engagements,” Nickerson said. “They seem very, very reasonable and obvious once they become obvious but until then they’re completely foreign to people.”

“It’s really on the owners of the organization to educate the customer of those potential pitfalls,” Nickerson continued. “Because there isn’t a good standard. We haven’t all gotten together and institutionalized the knowledge that we have in our heads and dump it down to paper so that someone who is new to the field being tasked with this can go through and say, ‘Hey, did you ask them if the city versus the state versus the building owner and the real estate people…are all of these people in lock step?’”

Coalfire CEO Tom McAndrew seemed to address this point in our interview Thursday, saying there were two unique aspects of this particular engagement. First, although the client in this case said they did not want Coalfire to make local law enforcement aware of the ongoing engagement prior to testing the physical security of the site, it was clear after the fact that state officials never did that on their own.

More importantly, McAndrew said, there was ambiguity around who actually owned the buildings that they were hired to test.

“If you’re doing a test for the state and you walk into the building and it’s the courthouse and you’re doing a test for the court system, you’d think that they would have jurisdiction or own it, and that turned out not to be the case in this scenario because there’s some things the state owns and some things the county owns, and that was something we weren’t aware of as we did some of this work,” he said. “We didn’t understand the nuances.”

Asked what Coalfire has learned from this ordeal, McAndrew said his company is likely to insist that local, state and even federal law enforcement be informed in advance of any penetration tests, at least as far as those engagements relate to public entities.

“When we look at the contracts and we look at who’s authorized to do what…typically, if a [chief security officer] says test these IP addresses, we would say okay that’s enough,” he said. “But we’re questioning from a legal perspective at what point does that need to have legal counsel review.”

McAndrew said it’s probably time for experts from various corners of the pen testing community to collaborate in documenting best practices that might help others avoid a repeat of the scenario in Dallas County.

“There’s no standard in the industry,” he said. “When it comes to these sorts of issues in red teaming — the legal challenges and the contracts — there’s really nothing out there. There are some things that can’t be undone. There’s the mugshots that are out there forever, but even as we get the charges dropped, these are permanently going to be in the federal database. This is a permanent thing that will reside with them and there’s no legal way we’re aware of to get these charges removed form the federal database.”

McAndrew said while he remains frustrated that it took so long to resolve this dispute, he doesn’t believe anyone involved acted with malicious intent.

“I don’t think there were any bad people,” he said. “Everyone was trying to do the right things — from law enforcement to the sheriff to the judges to the county — they all had the right intentions. But they didn’t necessarily all have the right information, and possibly people made decisions at levels they weren’t really authorized to do. Normally that’s not really our call, but I think people need to be thinking about that.”

from Krebs on Security https://ift.tt/2u7rFYZ
via IFTTT

Sprint Exposed Customer Support Site to Web

January 29, 2020 Leave a comment

Fresh on the heels of a disclosure that Microsoft Corp. leaked internal customer support data to the Internet, mobile provider Sprint has addressed a mix-up in which posts to a private customer support community were exposed to the Web.

KrebsOnSecurity recently contacted Sprint to let the company know that an internal customer support forum called “Social Care” was being indexed by search engines, and that several months worth of postings about customer complaints and other issues were viewable without authentication to anyone with a Web browser.

A redacted screen shot of one Sprint customer support thread exposed to the Web.

A Sprint spokesperson responded that the forum was indeed intended to be a private section of its support community, but that an error caused the section to become public.

“These conversations include minimal customer information and are used for frontline reps to escalate issues to managers,” said Lisa Belot, Sprint’s communications manager.

A review of the exposed support forum by this author suggests that while none of the posts exposed customer information such as payment card data, a number of them did include customer account information, such customer names, device identifiers and in some cases location information.

Perhaps more importantly for Sprint and its customers, the forum also included numerous links and references to internal tools and procedures. This sort of information would no doubt be of interest to scammers seeking to conduct social engineering attacks against Sprint employees as way to perpetrate other types of fraud, including unauthorized SIM swaps or in gleaning more account information from targeted customers.

Earlier this week, vice.com reported that hackers are phishing workers at major U.S. telecommunications companies to gain access to internal company tools. That news followed a related Vice report earlier this month which found ne’er-do-wells are now getting telecom employees to run software that lets the hackers directly reach into the internal systems of U.S. telecom companies to take over customer cell phone numbers.

The misstep by Sprint comes just days after Microsoft acknowledged that a database containing “a subset of information related to customer support interactions was accessible to the internet between the dates of Dec. 5 and Dec. 31, 2019.” Microsoft said it was alerting individuals whose information was exposed, which included location information, email and IP addresses, telephone numbers and descriptions of technical issues.

A message Microsoft sent to customers affected by their recent leak of customer support data.

This week marked the annual observance of Data Privacy Day, an occasion in which we are reminded to be more judicious about the types of personal information we voluntarily share on social media and other Web sites. But both the Microsoft and Sprint stumbles are a reminder that billion-dollar companies very often expose this information on our behalf, even when we are doing everything within our power to safeguard it.

from Krebs on Security https://ift.tt/2t89Ect
via IFTTT

Wawa Breach May Have Compromised More Than 30 Million Payment Cards

January 28, 2020 Leave a comment

In late December 2019, fuel and convenience store chain Wawa Inc. said a nine-month-long breach of its payment card processing systems may have led to the theft of card data from customers who visited any of its 850 locations nationwide. Now, fraud experts say the first batch of card data stolen from Wawa customers is being sold at one of the underground’s most popular crime shops, which claims to have 30 million records to peddle from a new nationwide breach.

On the evening of Monday, Jan. 27, a popular fraud bazaar known as Joker’s Stash began selling card data from “a new huge nationwide breach” that purportedly includes more than 30 million card accounts issued by thousands of financial institutions across 40+ U.S. states.

The fraud bazaar Joker’s Stash on Monday began selling some 30 million stolen payment card accounts that experts say have been tied back to a breach at Wawa in 2019.

Two sources that work closely with financial institutions nationwide tell KrebsOnSecurity the new batch of cards that went on sale Monday evening — dubbed “BIGBADABOOM-III” by Joker’s Stash — map squarely back to cardholder purchases at Wawa.

On Dec. 19, 2019, Wawa sent a notice to customers saying the company had discovered card-stealing malware installed on in-store payment processing systems and fuel dispensers at potentially all Wawa locations.

Pennsylvania-based Wawa says it discovered the intrusion on Dec. 10 and contained the breach by Dec. 12, but that the malware was thought to have been installed more than nine months earlier, around March 4. The exposed information includes debit and credit card numbers, expiration dates, and cardholder names. Wawa said the breach did not expose personal identification numbers (PINs) or CVV records (the three-digit security code printed on the back of a payment card).

A spokesperson for Wawa confirmed that the company today became aware of reports of criminal attempts to sell some customer payment card information potentially involved in the data security incident announced by Wawa on December 19, 2019.

“We have alerted our payment card processor, payment card brands, and card issuers to heighten fraud monitoring activities to help further protect any customer information,” Wawa said in a statement released to KrebsOnSecurity. “We continue to work closely with federal law enforcement in connection with their ongoing investigation to determine the scope of the disclosure of Wawa-specific customer payment card data.”

“We continue to encourage our customers to remain vigilant in reviewing charges on their payment card statements and to promptly report any unauthorized use to the bank or financial institution that issued their payment card by calling the number on the back of the card,” the statement continues. “Under federal law and card company rules, customers who notify their payment card issuer in a timely manner of fraudulent charges will not be responsible for those charges. In the unlikely event any individual customer who has promptly notified their card issuer of fraudulent charges related to this incident is not reimbursed, Wawa will work with them to reimburse them for those charges.”

Gemini Advisory, a New York-based fraud intelligence company, said the biggest concentrations of stolen cards for sale in the BIGBADABOOM-III batch map back to Wawa customer card use in Florida and Pennsylvania, the two most populous states where Wawa operates. Wawa also has locations in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and the District of Columbia.

According to Gemini, Joker’s Stash has so far released only a small portion of the claimed 30 million. However, this is not an uncommon practice: Releasing too many stolen cards for sale at once tends to have the effect of depressing the overall price of stolen cards across the underground market.

“Based on Gemini’s analysis, the initial set of bases linked to “BIGBADABOOM-III” consisted of nearly 100,000 records,” Gemini observed. “While the majority of those records were from US banks and were linked to US-based cardholders, some records also linked to cardholders from Latin America, Europe, and several Asian countries. Non-US-based cardholders likely fell victim to this breach when traveling to the United States and utilizing Wawa gas stations during the period of exposure.”

Gemini’s director of research Stas Alforov stressed that some of the 30 million cards advertised for sale as part of this BIGBADABOOM batch may in fact be sourced from breaches at other retailers, something Joker’s Stash has been known to do in previous large batches.

Gemini monitors multiple carding sites like Joker’s Stash. The company found the median price of U.S.-issued records in the new Joker’s Stash batch is currently $17, with some of the international records priced as high as $210 per card.

“Apart from banks with a nationwide presence, only financial institutions along the East Coast had significant exposure,” Gemini concluded.

Representatives from MasterCard did not respond to requests for comment. Visa declined to comment for this story, but pointed to a series of alerts it issued in November and December 2019 about cybercrime groups increasingly targeting fuel dispenser merchants.

A number of recent high-profile nationwide card breaches at main street merchants have been linked to large numbers of cards for sale at Joker’s Stash, including breaches at supermarket chain Hy-Vee, restaurant chains Sonic, Buca di Beppo, Krystal, Moe’s, McAlister’s Deli, and Schlotzsky’s, retailers like Bebe Stores, and hospitality brands such as Hilton Hotels.

Most card breaches at restaurants and other brick-and-mortar stores occur when cybercriminals manage to remotely install malicious software on the retailer’s card-processing systems. This type of point-of-sale malware is capable of copying data stored on a credit or debit card’s magnetic stripe when those cards are swiped at compromised payment terminals, and that data can then be used to create counterfeit copies of the cards.

The United States is the last of the G20 nations to make the shift to more secure chip-based cards, which are far more expensive and difficult for criminals to counterfeit. Unfortunately, many merchants have not yet shifted to using chip-based card readers and still swipe their customers’ cards.

According to stats released in November by Visa, more than 3.7 million merchant locations are now accepting chip cards. Visa says for merchants who have completed the chip upgrade, counterfeit fraud dollars dropped 81 percent in June 2019 compared to September 2015. This may help explain why card thieves increasingly are shifting their attention to compromising e-commerce merchants, a trend seen in virtually every country that has already made the switch to chip-based cards.

Many filling stations are upgrading their pumps to include more cyber and physical security — such as end-to-end encryption of card data, custom locks and security cameras. In addition, newer pumps can accommodate more secure chip-based payment cards that are already in use and in some cases mandated by other G20 nations.

But these upgrades are disruptive and expensive, and many fuel station owners are putting them off until it is absolutely necessary. Prior to late 2016, fuel station owners in the United States had until October 1, 2017 to install chip-capable readers at their pumps. Station owners that didn’t have chip-ready readers in place by then would have been on the hook to absorb 100 percent of the costs of fraud associated with transactions in which the customer presented a chip-based card yet was not asked or able to dip the chip (currently, card-issuing banks and consumers eat most of the fraud costs from fuel skimming).

Yet in December 2016, Visa — by far the largest credit card network in the United States — delayed the requirements, saying fuel station owners would be given until October 1, 2020 to meet the liability shift deadline.

Either way, Wawa could be facing steep fines for failing to protect customer card data traversing its internal payment card networks. In addition, at least one class action lawsuit has already been filed against the company.

Finally, it’s important to note that even if all 30 million of the cards that Joker’s Stash is selling as part of this batch do in fact map back to Wawa locations, it’s highly unlikely that more than a small percentage of these cards will actually be purchased and used by fraudsters. In the 2013 megabreach at Target Corp., for example, fraudsters stole roughly 40 million cards but only ended up selling between one to three million of those cards.

from Krebs on Security https://ift.tt/317PE6n
via IFTTT

Russian Cybercrime Boss Burkov Pleads Guilty

January 27, 2020 Leave a comment

Aleksei Burkov, an ultra-connected Russian hacker once described as “an asset of supreme importance” to Moscow, has pleaded guilty in a U.S. court to running a site that sold stolen payment card data and to administering a highly secretive crime forum that counted among its members some of the most elite Russian cybercrooks.

Aleksei Burkov, seated second from right, attends a hearing in Jerusalem in 2015. Andrei Shirokov / Tass via Getty Images.

Burkov, 29, admitted to running CardPlanet, a site that sold more than 150,000 stolen credit card accounts, and to being the founder and administrator of DirectConnection — a closely guarded underground community that attracted some of the world’s most-wanted Russian hackers. He pleaded guilty last week in a Virginia court to access device fraud and conspiracy to commit computer intrusion, identity theft, wire fraud and money laundering.

As KrebsOnSecurity noted in a November 2019 profile of Burkov’s hacker nickname ‘k0pa,’ “a deep dive into the various pseudonyms allegedly used by Burkov suggests this individual may be one of the most connected and skilled malicious hackers ever apprehended by U.S. authorities, and that the Russian government is probably concerned that he simply knows too much.”

Membership in the DirectConnection fraud forum was heavily restricted. New members had to be native Russian speakers, provide a $5,000 deposit, and be vouched for by three existing crime forum members. Also, members needed to have a special encryption certificate installed in their Web browser before the forum’s login page would even load.

DirectConnection was something of a Who’s Who of major cybercriminals, and many of its most well-known members have likewise been extradited to and prosecuted by the United States. Those include Sergey “Fly” Vovnenko, who was sentenced to 41 months in prison for operating a botnet and stealing login and payment card data. Vovnenko also served as administrator of his own cybercrime forum, which he used in 2013 to carry out a plan to have Yours Truly framed for heroin possession.

As noted in last year’s profile of Burkov, an early and important member of DirectConnection was a hacker who went by the moniker “aqua” and ran the banking sub-forum on Burkov’s site. In December 2019, The FBI has offered a $5 million bounty leading to the arrest and conviction of aqua, who’s been identified as Maksim Viktorovich Yakubets. The Justice Department says Yakubets/aqua ran a transnational cybercrime organization called “Evil Corp.” that stole roughly $100 million from victims.

In this 2011 screenshot of DirectConnection, we can see the nickname of “aqua,” who ran the “banking” sub-forum on DirectConecttion. Aqua, a.k.a. Maksim V. Yakubets of Russia, now has a $5 million bounty on his head from the FBI.

According to a statement of facts in Burkov’s case, the author of the infamous SpyEye banking trojanAleksandr “Gribodemon” Panin — was personally vouched for by Burkov. Panin was sentenced in 2016 to 24 years in prison.

Other top DirectConnection members include convicted credit card fraudsters Vladislav “Badb” Horohorin and Sergey “zo0mer” Kozerev, as well as the infamous spammer and botnet master Peter “Severa” Levashov.

Burkov was arrested in 2015 on an international warrant while he was visiting Israel, and over the ensuing four years the Russian government aggressively sought to keep him from being extradited to the United States. When Israeli authorities turned down requests to send him back to Russia — supposedly to face separate hacking charges there — the Russians then imprisoned a young Israeli woman on trumped-up drug charges in a bid to trade prisoners.

As the news outlet Haaretz reported in October, Naama Issachar was arrested while changing planes in Russia on her way home from a yoga course in India. Russian police said they found approximately 10 grams of marijuana in Issachar’s bag. Issachar denied smuggling drugs, saying she had not sought to enter Russia during her layover and had no access to her luggage during her brief stay in the Russian airport.

Haaretz noted that the Russian government pressed Israel to exchange Burkov for Issachar. When Israel’s supreme court cleared the way for Burkov’s extradition to the United States, Issachar was found guilty of drug smuggling and sentenced to 7.5 years in jail.

But according to a story today in The Times of Israel, the Kremlin has signaled that Russian President Vladimir Putin may make a decision “in the near future,” on a possible pardon for Issachar, whose mother reportedly met with Putin while the Russian leader was visiting Israel last week.

Burkov currently is scheduled to be sentenced on May 8. He faces a maximum sentence of 15 years in prison.

from Krebs on Security https://ift.tt/318X4qd
via IFTTT

Does Your Domain Have a Registry Lock?

January 24, 2020 Leave a comment

If you’re running a business online, few things can be as disruptive or destructive to your brand as someone stealing your company’s domain name and doing whatever they wish with it. Even so, most major Web site owners aren’t taking full advantage of the security tools available to protect their domains from being hijacked. Here’s the story of one recent victim who was doing almost everything possible to avoid such a situation and still had a key domain stolen by scammers.

On December 23, 2019, unknown attackers began contacting customer support people at OpenProvider, a popular domain name registrar based in The Netherlands. The scammers told the customer representatives they had just purchased from the original owner the domain e-hawk.net — which is part of a service that helps Web sites detect and block fraud — and that they were having trouble transferring the domain from OpenProvider to a different registrar.

The real owner of e-hawk.net is Raymond Dijkxhoorn, a security expert and entrepreneur who has spent much of his career making life harder for cybercrooks and spammers. Dijkxhoorn and E-HAWK’s CEO Peter Cholnoky had already protected their domain with a “registrar lock,” a service that requires the registrar to confirm any requested changes with the domain owner via whatever communications method is specified by the registrant.

In the case of e-hawk.net, however, the scammers managed to trick an OpenProvider customer service rep into transferring the domain to another registrar with a fairly lame social engineering ruse — and without triggering any verification to the real owners of the domain.

Specifically, the thieves contacted OpenProvider via WhatsApp, said they were now the rightful owners of the domain, and shared a short screen grab video showing the registrar’s automated system blocking the domain transfer (see video below).

“The support agent helpfully tried to verify if what the [scammers] were saying was true, and said, ‘Let’s see if we can move e-hawk.net from here to check if that works’,” Dijkxhoorn said. “But a registrar should not act on instructions coming from a random email address or other account that is not even connected to the domain in question.”

Dijkxhoorn shared records obtained from OpenProvider showing that on Dec. 23, 2019, the e-hawk.net domain was transferred to a reseller account within OpenProvider. Just three days later, that reseller account moved e-hawk.net to another registrar — Public Domain Registry (PDR).

“Due to the previously silent move to another reseller account within OpenProvider, we were not notified by the registrar about any changes,” Dijkxhoorn said. “This fraudulent move was possible due to successful social engineering towards the OpenProvider support team. We have now learned that after the move to the other OpenProvider account, the fraudsters could silently remove the registrar lock and move the domain to PDR.”

REGISTRY LOCK

Dijkxhoorn said one security precaution his company had not taken with their domain prior to the fraudulent transfer was a “registry lock,” a more stringent, manual (and sometimes offline) process that effectively neutralizes any attempts by fraudsters to social engineer your domain registrar.

With a registry lock in place, your registrar cannot move your domain to another registrar on its own. Doing so requires manual contact verification by the appropriate domain registry, such as Verisign — which is the authoritative registry for all domains ending in .com, .net, .name, .cc, .tv, .edu, .gov and .jobs. Other registries handle locks for specific top-level or country-code domains, including Nominet (for .co.uk or .uk domains), EURID (for .eu domains), CNNIC for (for .cn) domains, and so on.

According to data provided by digital brand protection firm CSC, while domains created in the top three most registered top-level domains (.com, .jp and .cn) are eligible for registry locks, just 22 percent of domain names tracked in Forbes’ list of the World’s Largest Public Companies have secured registry locks.

Unfortunately, not all registrars support registry locks (a list of top-level domains that do allow registry locks is here, courtesy of CSC). But as we’ll see in a moment, there are other security precautions that can and do help if your domain somehow ends up getting hijacked.

Dijkxhoorn said his company first learned of the domain theft on Jan. 13, 2020, which was the date the fraudsters got around to changing the domain name system (DNS) settings for e-hawk.net. That alert was triggered by systems E-HAWK had previously built in-house that continually monitor their stable of domains for any DNS changes.

By the way, this continuous monitoring of one’s DNS settings is a powerful approach to help blunt attacks on your domains and DNS infrastructure. Anyone curious about why this might be a good approach should have a look at this deep-dive from 2019 on “DNSpionage,” the name given to the exploits of an Iranian group that has successfully stolen countless passwords and VPN credentials from major companies via DNS-based attacks.

DNSSEC

Shortly after pointing e-hawk.net’s DNS settings to a server they controlled, the attackers were able to obtain at least one encryption certificate for the domain, which could have allowed them to intercept and read encrypted Web and email communications tied to e-hawk.net.

But that effort failed because E-HAWK’s owners also had enabled DNSSEC for their domains (a.k.a. “DNS Security Extensions”), which protects applications from using forged or manipulated DNS data by requiring that all DNS queries for a given domain or set of domains be digitally signed.

With DNSSEC properly enabled, if a name server determines that the address record for a given domain has not been modified in transit, it resolves the domain and lets the user visit the site. If, however, that record has been modified in some way or doesn’t match the domain requested, the name server blocks the user from reaching the fraudulent address.

While fraudsters who have hijacked your domain and/or co-opted access to your domain registrar can and usually will try to remove any DNSSEC records associated with the hijacked domain, it generally takes a few days for these updated records to be noticed and obeyed by the rest of the Internet.

As a result, having DNSSEC enabled for its domains bought E-HAWK an additional 48 hours or so with which to regain control over its domain before any encrypted traffic to and from e-hawk.net could have been intercepted.

In the end, E-HAWK was able to wrest back its hijacked domain in less than 48 hours, but only because its owners are on a first-name basis with many of the companies that manage the Internet’s global domain name system. Perhaps more importantly, they happened to know key people at PDR — the registrar to which the thieves moved the stolen domain.

Dijkxhoorn said without that industry access, E-HAWK probably would still be waiting to re-assume control over its domain.

“This process is normally not that quick,” he said, noting that most domains can’t be moved for at least 60 days after a successful transfer to another registrar.

In an interview with KrebsOnSecurity, OpenProvider CEO and Founder Arno Vis said said OpenProvider is reviewing its procedures and building systems to prevent support employees from overriding security checks that come with a registrar lock.

“We are building an extra layer of approval for things that support engineers shouldn’t be doing in the first place,” Vis said. “As far as I know, this is the first time something like this has happened to us.”

As in this case, crooks who specialize in stealing domains often pounce during holidays, when many registrars are short on well-trained staff. But Vis said the attack against E-HAWK targeted the company’s most senior support engineer.

“This is why social engineering is such a tricky thing, because in the end you still have a person who has to make a decision about something and in some cases they don’t make the right decision,” he said.

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

To recap, for maximum security on your domains, consider adopting some or all of the following best practices:

-Use registration features like Registry Lock that can help protect domain names records from being changed. Note that this may increase the amount of time it takes going forward to make key changes to the locked domain (such as DNS changes).

-Use DNSSEC (both signing zones and validating responses).

-Use access control lists for applications, Internet traffic and monitoring.

-Use 2-factor authentication, and require it to be used by all relevant users and subcontractors.

-In cases where passwords are used, pick unique passwords and consider password managers.

-Review the security of existing accounts with registrars and other providers, and make sure you have multiple notifications in place when and if a domain you own is about to expire.

-Monitor the issuance of new SSL certificates for your domains by monitoring, for example, Certificate Transparency Logs.

from Krebs on Security https://ift.tt/3aJCcKy
via IFTTT